Ralph Mackiewicz is Vice President of SISCO, Inc. a Sterling Heights, Michigan developer of standards based real-time communications and integration products. Ralph obtained a BSEE from Michigan Technological University in 1977 and worked at Westinghouse Electric's PLC division as engineering manager prior to joining SISCO in 1985. Ralph has been an active participant in MMS, UCA and ICCP-TASE.2 standards activities. Ralph has authored chapters on PLCs and MMS for several well-respected industry handbooks. Ralph has authored and presented papers on UCA/IEC61850, CIM, GID, and associated standards at technical conferences sponsored by IEEE, ISA, EPRI, and Pennwell. Ralph holds two patents and was a Founding Member and Fellow of the Industrial Computing Society.